• What is ATP (an …. Carrier)?
  • What gets continually attached and broken off?
  • Why?
  • Draw a cycle diagram to show this
  • Find a video to explain this better

What is ATP?
ATP stands for adenosine triphosphate. This is the currency of energy in cells (meaning ATP is an energy carrier) - this means that if a cell needs energy, it gets energy directly from the stored ATP. ATP is present in the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm in every cell. ATP is used for cell functions such as, transport work (moving substance across cell membrane), and mechanical work (supplying the energy). ATP is created by respiration. The ATP produced is used by that cell where and when it is needed. ATP is broken down into adenosine diphosphate (ADP) when ATP is used to do work in cells. To rebuild the ATP again, more energy is used. During these processes, different phosphate is continually broken off and attached. This happens because of the energy production.
With_P_1.JPG



atp_ener.gif
Energy Cycle

ATP is used to store AND release energy. ATP use ADP molecules to store extra energy, and ATP release energy by breaking off a phosphate in its triphosphate group.

Steps needed to be done to create ATP:
  1. Happens inside cytoplasm, they do not need oxygen. It uses two ATP on the process of conversion from glucose pyruvate (sugar). Each glucose will create two pyruvate and four ATP. So net ATP here is two.
    2. Krebs Cycle - It happens in the Mitochondria Matrix, this process requires oxygen before Krebs cycle each pyruvate is turning to Acetyl -CoA (co enzyme). Acetyl - CoA enters the cycle and is oxidase into CO2 this process creates electron carriers for the electron transport chain. The waste product from this is H2O.
    3. Electron transport chain - happens in the mitochondria cristae, requires oxygen. The products of the Krebs cycle enters the transport chain then they are oxidase to create a proton gradient. This gradient provides the necessary energy to add a phosphate group to ADP which turns it into ATP with all of them chemical product from the Krebs cycle. This product produces 36 ATP molecules. The waste product is water.
    4. Fermentation - This happens in the Cytoplasm, when there is not enough oxygen for the Krebs Cycle, so they use an anaerobic respiration. The purpose of fermentation is to preserve electron carriers for future use, this process produces less ATP due to the lack of the electron transport chain and the Krebs Cycle. In human the waste product is lactic acid, in yeast (fungi) the waste products are ethanol and carbon dioxide.

The following diagram will help you visualize the process of creating ATP

Creation_of_ATP.gif
Cellular Respiration Processes




To learn more about this process (cellular respiration), please go to this link


A comparison of ATP cell with Battery for extra understanding:

ATP in short is an energy carrier in a cell and when a cell needs the energy it gets it from the ATP molecules. This If we compare an ATP to a Rechargeable battery then they are very similar. When a small machine like a remote runs out of energy then we insert the battery and the remote is ready to be used again. An ATP molecule is composed of one adenosine group and 3 phosphate group. When used then the ATP breaks off one phosphate for energy usage and the ATP becomes ADP (with 2 phosphate group left). Then the ADP goes to the Mitochondria where the ADP has another phosphate attaches to become ATP again. If we compare then a full battery is equal to an ATP, a used up battery is like an ADP ( ATP after donating a phosphate group) and when we charge the battery it is the same as when the ADP goes to the Mitochondria to have another phosphate group added to it.
Very good, short and understandable video about what ATP is and how it works:

To make this concept of ATP easier to understand, here is an analogy of the ATP molecule. An ATP molecule can be compared to a camera battery:
ATP_Diagram.png
Drawn by Do Quynh Anh
VS
Camera_Battery_Picture.png
Drawn by Do Quynh Anh

As we can see from the two diagrams, ATP is very similar to a camera battery. Both ATP and the battery provide the energy for the object or organelle that is in need of that energy. Both the battery and the ATP molecule has its energy used up during the process of energy reaction between the object and the energy provider (ATP or the battery). The only difference between the ATP molecule and the camera battery is while the reaction between the ATP molecule and the organelle (or process) is while the energy given off the reaction in the camera is gradual, the energy given off the ATP reaction is instant, therefore the need to recharge the ATP molecule with more Phosphate is more instant.
Works Cited:
Cellular Respiration Process. N.d. Plant Biology. N.p., Spring 2007. Web. 4 Mar. 2012. <https://www.msu.edu/‌course/‌te/‌802/‌science08/‌plants/‌facts.html>.
Energy Cycle. N.d. VCE Biology Students. Biochemistry, LaTrobe University, n.d. Web. 19 Feb. 2012. <http://www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/library/
cat-removed/u3aos12.html>.
LeslieSamuelTV. What ATP is and How it Works - BioVid Episode 3 . YouTube. N.p.,
8 June 2010. Web. 17 Feb. 2012. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bbtqF9q_pFw.

Pickering, W R. "1.10 Respiration provides the energy for life." Complete Biology . Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 2000. 29. Print.

"What Is ATP?" SG Learn Online. SG Learn Online, n.d. Web. 19 Feb. 2012.
http://www.sglearnonline.com/what-is-atp.html.