Cellular Respiration

Respiration is the process of which ATP(chemical energy) is produced, while using up fuels mostly, such as glucose and oxygen. The organelle involved with respiration is Mitochondria, which is also known as the power house of the cell. There are four main stages of cellular respiration, they are: Glycolysis, transition reaction, the citric acid cycle and electron transport. To learn more about the three stages of cellular respiration, visit this wiki page.

external image 250px-Mitochondria,_mammalian_lung_-_TEM.jpg
View of the mitochondria under the microscope
Credits: Mitochondria, mammalian lung - TEM by Louisa Howard from Wikipedia.com
Types of Respiration
There are two types of respiration; aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
Aerobic Respiration
Anaerobic Respiration
With air
Without air
Requires glucose and oxygen which is changed in energy, water and carbon dioxide;

Glucose + Oxygen = Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy
C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy (ATP)
Only uses glucose.

An example of anaerobic respiration is fermentation which can be found in yeast as it produces alcohol (ethanol)

Glucose --> Ethanol + Carbon Dioxide + Energy
C6H12O6 --> 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 + ATP

This process is when glucose is broken down into energy (ATP), carbon dioxide and ethanol
During metabolism (a chemical reaction in the body's cells which convert the food's fuel into energy which is needed to do everything) ATP is created to let go of free energy which will be used for reactions. For one molecule of glucose, aerobic respiration creates 36 molecules of ATP are created -- this is a benefit to aerobic respiration.
Anaerobic respiration goes through the same process but only generates 2 molecules of ATP. Anaerobic respiration only produces 2 ATPs because the cells use anaerobic metabolism, which ATP is only produced in glycolysis. 2 ATPs are produced for every glycolysis and fermentation stage.

To help you further visualize the difference between anaerobic and aerobic respiration, here is a 6 minute YouTube video specifying the differences between the two type of cellular respiration. The video also takes a look at what happens inside the cell in anaerobic and aerobic respiration.

Credits: Biology - 2.05: Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration by Matt Broderick

Cells in eukaryotes (organisms with cells containing nucleus) produce 34 ATP molecules in cellular respiration, and prokaryotic cells (no nucleus) produced 36 ATP molecules. However, two more ATP molecules are produced 'as a net gain' in the process of glycolysis, therefore eukaryotic cells produce a total of 36 ATP molecules and prokaryotic cells produce a total of 38 ATP molecules during cellular respiration (CliffNotes). Eukaryotic cells lose 2 ATPS because the NADH molecules are used for glycolysis to go through the mitochondrial membrane.

Measurement of Respiration
Respiration is mesured in respiration rate, that is the measurement of numbers of breath taken within a set amount of time, mostly 60 seconds.
The average Respiration rate by age:
  • Newborns: 30-40 breaths per minute
  • Less Than 1 Year: 30-40 breaths per minute
  • 1-3 Years: 23-35 breaths per minute
  • 3-6 Years: 20-30 breaths per minute
  • 6-12 Years: 18-26 breaths per minute
  • 12-17 Years: 12-20 breaths per minute
  • Adults Over 18: 12–20 breaths per minute.
Works Cited:
Bailey, Regina. "What is Cellular Respiration?" About Biology. The New York Times, 9 Nov. 2007. Web. 4 Mar. 2012. <http://biology.about.com/b/2007/ 11/09/what-is-cellular-respiration.htm>.
Broderick, Matt. Biology - 2.05: Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration. Matt
Broderick. YouTube.com. YouTube, 31 Oct. 2010. Web. 20 Feb. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dahYD_1nIF0>.
"Respiratory rate." Wikipedia. N.p., 24 Feb. 2012. Web. 4 Mar. 2012.
"Cell Respiration: Glucose and Energy." Pearson BioCoach. Pearson Education, n.d. Web. 4 Mar. 2012. <http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/ biocoach/cellresp/glucose.html>.

CliffNotes. "Cellular Respiration." CliffNotes.com. John Wiley & Sons, 2012.
Web. 20 Feb. 2012. <http://www.cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/Cellular-Respiration.topicArticleId-8524,articleId-8420.html>.
Howard, Louisa. Mitochondria, mammalian lung - TEM. N.d. REMF Image Index, remf.dartmouth.edu. Wikipedia.org. Web. 20 Feb. 2012 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mitochondria,_mammalian_lung_-_TEM.jpg>.

"Metabolism Basics." Kidshealth. Nemours, n.d. Web. 19 Feb. 2012.

"The Advantages and Benefits of Aerobic Respiration." CL Solutions. N.p., n.d.
Web. 19 Feb. 2012. <<__http://www.cl-solutions.com/newsletter/ advantage/__>>.

Wikipedia contributors. "Mitochondrion." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.
Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 10 Feb. 2012. Web. 13 Feb. 2012.